La Sierra de Guadarrama tal y como la conocemos hoy, es el resultado en parte del paso de distintos pobladores y culturas a lo largo de la historia. Gracias a las excavaciones de los arqueólogos, algunos de los restos de el legado de estos pueblos puede admirarse en los distintos yacimientos arqueológicos que existen en la Sierra de Guadarrama.
The Roman site “El Beneficio”
The existence of a Roman inn, established around the second century AD in Collado Mediano is documented. From the 3rd until the 4th century, it was destroyed or remodelled, reaching its maximum splendour in the latter century. The inn was a place for travellers to rest after descending from the Sierra de Guadarrama or just before their ascent to the lands of the North Plateau. The inn was abandoned around the fifth century, after the barbarian invasion and the destabilisation of the Roman Empire.
La Mansio has one main building of a quadrangular shape, consisting of two wings separated by an open patio, and two upper floors. In the north wing were the main rooms, and in the south wing the thermal complex and the kitchen. The thermal baths were the most important part of the building, where the travellers cleaned themselves before arriving at their destinies.
The Posada Romana Visitor Interpretive Centre was created to compliment and educate people about the archaeological heritage of Collado Mediano by explaining it. As the excavation of the first documented “mansio” (inn) and the layout of the Roman road connection finished, the Visitor Interpretive Centre has aimed to publicise the heritage and also raise awareness of the importance of its conservation.
The entry is free and guided visits are available, but they must be booked in advance by phoning 91 859 81 05.
La Cabilda archaeological site
Camino del cementerio, 11.
The works carried out at the La Cabilda archaeological site have brought to light a village-type population nucleus dated between the 7th and 8th centuries AD. As a result of this, the origins of the settlement in the territory have been traced back six centuries sooner, at the beginning of the Visigoth era. Granite structures covered with tiles and having inside remains of homes in which fire was lit for cooking and heating have been found. The recovered objects provide information on the different activities carried out by these first settlers. Knives, mortars, hand mills, wool carders or spindles are some of the tools discovered, along with other objects, such as weights or iron bars, that can be linked to more complex commercial activities.
Cerro el Rebollar Visigoth Necropolis
Back in 1960, Victorio Rozalen a neighbour of El Boalo and industrialist of the place, together with Felipe Sabaria, a Portuguese discovered an extensive necropolis and several scattered tombs while reforesting with pines a place known as the El Rebollar Hill (Cerro el Rebollar), close to where the Herrero Stream confluences with the Samburiel River. On site there were large slabs that, when raised, brought to light skeletal remains, human skeletons and, in some cases, also clay amphoras and copper coins. Anthropomorphic tombs excavated in the stone have also been found in other places in El Boalo. The discovery of similar tombs in the street of El Vallejuelo and the “Cercas Viejas” meadow is also mentioned.