Sierra de Guadarrama National Park
It is located in the eastern part of the Central System and extends along the summits of the Sierra de Guadarrama, encompasses 33,960 hectares, of which almost 64% belongs to Madrid Autonomous Community, and just over 36% belong to Segovia, in Castilla and León Autonomous Community. The Peñalara Peak (Pico de Peñalara), with its 2,428 meters above the sea level, is the highest peak, and together with four other surrounding peaks, of more than 2,271 m, form the ridge of the scenic Peñalara Massif (Macizo de Peñalara), which spreads out from Los Cotos Pass (Puerto de Los Cotos), in the N-NE direction, to the peak of Los Neveros.
From this point, the National Park continues towards the northeast, following the Sierra de Guadarrama central axis, passing through the Navafría Pass Puerto de Navafría), up to Reajo Alto peak (2,100 m). There is another impressive mountain ridge, Cuerda Larga, which starts at Navacerrada Pas; for 16 km, its height remains of over 2,000 m, reaching the maximum height of 2,383 m at Cabezas de Hierro. The Puerto de la Morcuera marks the end of the Cuerda Larga ridge and the beginning of the Sierra de la Morcuera. This mountain chain less high than the precedent spreads out further the National Park limits. Other mountains and peaks of interest are Siete Picos, which lies between the Navacerrada Pass and the La Fuenfría Pass, Sierra de los Porrones, La Pedriza, Peña del Oso (2,196 m) and Montón de Trigo (2,195 m).
The National Park encompasses 33,960 hectares of the Sierra de Guadarrama in the Central System, a mountainous massif that halves the Castilian plateau and separates the Duero and the Tajo river basins and also Madrid and Segovia provinces. Most of its surface is formed by peaks on which rocky outcrops, mountain pastures and shrubs prevail.
During the Park pronouncement process, at a certain time it was named “Sierra de Guadarrama Heights National Park”, but the inclusion of extensive areas of pine forest, and other not so large of Pyrenean oak covering the Supramediterranean and Oromediterranean bioclimatic floors made the “Heights” meaningless.